Learning science is more than just remembering facts. I think everybody of you would agree with this. But how can we bring our students to the point that they are not just recalling their knowledge but applying it to new situations, evaluating complex problems based on their knowledge? Therefore, we need to bring into line our teaching objectives as students learn higher order thinking skills, our teaching materials, our behavior in classroom, the questions we ask, and our students' competencies. And to do so, a taxonomy that was developed by a colleague, Benjamin Bloom, can help us. He brought into order different questions we can ask, different strategies in classrooms and different thinking skills students have, and ordered them from lower order to higher order thinking skills. The lowest order thinking skill is just the recalling of facts. The recalling of knowledge, remembering facts. So, it's about giving definitions, recalling terms, recalling pictures. For example, if you ask your student something like, give a definition of weather and climate. This is focusing on remembering facts. But if science learning and science goes beyond just summing up of facts, then we need to train higher order thinking skills. The problem is that if you have a look into higher education classrooms, into lab classes and to lectures, 90% of the questions we ask the students is focusing on this remembering of facts, remembering of knowledge. So, we need to go beyond that. And one step above that is that we ask our students to really comprehend something to really understand something. Here they need to to bring together different aspects they have learned, different types of the knowledge they have learned. And really bring them together to concepts to understand a situations. They need to translate things. They need to compare things. They need to organize their knowledge. A question you can, for example, ask is, please explain how carbon dioxide is absorbing heat? So they have to have notes about the molecular structure of carbon dioxide, and knowledge about the heat absorption, and bring this knowledge together. We don't only want our students to understand knowledge but to apply it to new situations. And this is a very tricky but a very important part of learning. Acquiring knowledge and using it in new situations solve new problems. For example, if you ask your students to employ their knowledge about heat signatures of greenhouse gases to the atmospheric energy project. So they use their theoretically and theoretical developed knowledge, take it out of this theoretical situation and bring it into practice to explain a real world practical problem. On the next level of understanding, students are able to analyze situations. Analyzing situation means you break situations down into its parts. So, you make references between different parts of the whole and you bring them into line and analyze what's here, what's there. For example, if you ask your students to list four ways to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and provide evidence that support their statements. Here, they have to have different strategies for the whole, they have to analyze the whole situation. On the next level of understanding, they don't need to break it down but, to sum up to a new whole. So, synthesizing knowledge. Synthesizing knowledge from different fields forces your students to go on the next level of higher order thinking on the other end. So if you asked your students, for example, to compare geoengineering carbon dioxide storage or carbon dioxide limiting strategies regarding their effect on the carbon cycle. So here they have to compile different information and sum them up to a new whole. The highest order thinking skill is if we can evaluate situations. If we can evaluate conflict situations. So this means presenting and defending different options leading to a goal. So, proving the validity of ideas, proving data, for example, and even rejecting data faults in the area of evaluating something. So, for example, if you asked your students something like, what is the best strategy in terms of science and society to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees? So they have to bring together different aspects of knowledge and evaluate the to knowledge in a broader context. If we want to train our students to become successful scientists, successful thinkers, then we need to bring them from just remembering facts over analyzing to evaluating complex situations. So we have to train their higher order thinking skills.