Welcome back to English for Marketing and Sales. Now that you're clear on pie, bar, and line graphs, we're going to learn the best ways to interpret them. What do all these lines, numbers, and data mean, and how do I explain this information to someone else? Let's interpret these charts one at a time. So here we have our pie chart. As we learned from Andrea, its purpose is to show parts to whole relationships. Sometimes they will be called the circle graphs, but in English, pie is the most common term used. Each slice represents a fraction of the whole, the total should equal 100% or 1. Most effective pie graphs will have only seven slices or less. When glancing at pie graphs or charts, it's easy to visually see what slices of the pie are the biggest or the smallest but the actual numbers or percentages will also be listed. This helps for simple generalizations or conclusions of the information being displayed. Look at this example pie chart. The first rule to reading any chart is to look at what can be learned from the title and the numbers displayed. This shows the results from our surveys and market research for BioDent Toothpaste. At the end of the survey, people were asked if they would use BioDent Toothpaste. Yes answers are shown by age category. Orange is certainly a dominant color and it looks like 43% of women ages 15 through 65 were likely to use BioDent Toothpaste. Now you try, what group is the smallest represented on the pie chart, why would this group be most likely to not use BioDent? Next, we'll move on to bar graphs. Bar graphs are another easy way to visually categorize data where the pie chart only answers one question from the market research analysis, a bar graph can answer several questions. Usually, information on a bar graph has been first completed in a table. The table shows data and variables that are considered independent meaning they are constant and unchanging to the research. And dependent variables, that depend on the other variables in order to change. For example, if I want to see how fast a bean plant and a sunflower grew every day, my independent variable would be the days, that is constant and something I can't change. The days will remain the same whether I do my experiment or not. But the growth of the bean plant and the sunflower are dependent variables, their results depend on the number of days I let them grow. Once I have the data I need in my table, I will plot this information onto a bar or a line graph with an x and y axis. Often, the x-axis will plot the independent variable. Let's take a look at our BioDent market research. Of the different questions asked, we're able to see three different answers, gray means no, orange is maybe, and blue means yes. The x-axis shows the number of people surveyed, and the y-axis shows the questions. According to the graph, which question produced the most noes? It certainly seems like people aren't willing to pay more for their toothpaste. This bar graph gives a quick visual for those on Jake's BioDent marketing team. They have a reference point or a starting point of what the public thinks of BioDent and how to move forward. The last graph is a line graph. Much like the bar graph, it also represents information on x and y axis using dependent and independent variables. Basic line graphs will have only two variables and often show change or progress as time goes by or in value. Here's our line graph based on the number of hours spent performing BioDent market research. Since time is money, the team will need to analyze if their research has been worth the cost. The y-axis shows the number of hours daily each employee worked on that particular part of the project and the x-axis has the months where the marketing research took place. What was the least amount of hours the data analysts worked? What month did the surveyors work the most? In our next lesson, we'll talk more about how to present and report these numbers, especially in group settings. So what are the takeaways from this lesson? When interpreting or reading charts and graphs, start with what you know, the title, the legend, and the axes. Look for peaks and valleys, or high and lows within the information. Draw conclusions from your analysis. Thanks for joining us in this lesson of English for Marketing and Sales.