This is another angle on the prodrome, now instead of

asking people, well when did you ever have problems like that.

These are the 71 new cases

that I showed you earlier.

We asked them, when did you have a period

of sadness for two weeks or more, that's Dysphoria.

Or when did you have problems with Appetite for

two weeks or more during a period of being sad.

And so, we have the nine criteria here, this is in a way to remind you

of the criteria sadness, loss of interest to

appetite sleep and so fourth and suicidal indication.

And these are box plots.

This is called a horizontal

box plot, for what it's worth.

And you can see, in the middle of the boxes there or on the left-hand side

there's a vertical bar, that vertical bar is 50% of the cases.

So, if we just look at appetite, we see that 50% of the people with an onset

of depression report onset of appetite problems 2 years or sooner.

That is 2 years or

less, and 50% report two years or more.

Those bars are all about one or 2 years, you can see, for sleep.

For slow and restlessness for fatigue and so forth.

But there are two exceptions, these

are exceptions are non, non trivial exceptions.

It's Dysphoria and Suicidal Ideation.

So, we see that three quarters of the population

have a prodrome involving sadness for 15 years or more.

That's, if you look at the row for dysphoria, there were 63

of the 71 new cases included dysphoria as one of their symptoms.

Half of them had the dysphoria for 5 years or less, but half

of them had it for 5 years or more, that's the vertical bar there.

So dysphoria and suicidal ideation, you

might say there's psychological aspects of depression.

They start early, it's slow and it of course very hard to predict with

somebody whose sad, or if they have suicidal or issues.

whether they're eventually going to meet the

criteria for major depressive disorder but it is

true that if they have anhedonia or appetite

or sleep problems it's going to be quicker.

That's the notion here.