Now we have a fixed point, matter and information. We can, it's a bit like glasses, we will look at the world. And using this matter information, couple, we will see three big thing. Three big challenges, three big changes. Number one, only about matter. Number two, only about information. And number three, about a shift from matter to information. So, let's start with number one, matter. What's the issue? Very simple, for centuries people tend to believe matter is unlimited. Even 200 years ago nobody ever imagined a limit to matter. Wood, coal, air, water were supposed to be infinite. Now we know this is not true. There is a limit to matter, wire, I don't know, metal, everything has a limit. And this is of course the environmental challenge. That's a really big thing. When I was born on this planet, there was 2.5 billion people. Can you imagine that? When I was born. And I'm going to die maybe, I don't know, 9 mi, billion, maybe 10 billion. It's incredible. Can you imagine the period of time we live in? So, on a century, times four or five this is incredible, and it happens now, this is a really big thing. Another threshold is, a couple of years ago, now we can tell a majority of people on the planet lives in cities. In cities. And that's another big change. So, there is something big around matter. That's challenge number one. There is also something big in terms of information. And it's exactly op, the opposite. For centuries people believed there was a limit to information. Information was manageable. Now we know there is no limit to information, you see it is exactly the opposite. Matter is limited, information is not. For, if you take big [FOREIGN], Italian philosopher in the 1500 something. He want to know everything. It was more or less not possible, but at least think about this. Leibniz would be the same. Probably the last man who had such a project was Stuart Mill. I don't know, maybe it's him. And in the Enlightenment period of time, they wrote the encyclopedia. And this was not built by a person. They realized, we need a team. So you see, information is unlimited. And there is another big thing. How can we process an infinity of information? And new technology, new mindset, new system has to be developed to cope with the second type of challenge. As an illustration, I want to show you something. Probably you know this is called Fermat's theorem, Fermat's theorem. You remember at the beginning of this, of this lecture, I showed the table with the end off? You could write a book, The End of the Proof. What's the story of Fermat? It was in the 17th century, Fermat, a French mathematician, told the world, this equation has no solution if n is not equal to 2. Of course, if e, if n is equal to 2, there is a solution. For example, 9 and 16 is 25. This, that's easy fine. But Fermat claimed there is no solution if n is more than 2. For 300 century, nobody has found a proof for that. 20 years ago, an English mathematician called Wiles, finally got the proof, finally got the proof. But it took two years to be verified by a community of mathematicians. So, with this explosion of information we, maybe we'll reach the end of the proof. If the next big theorem requires ten years to be verified, maybe we reach the end of the proof. Isn't that amazing? I'll have an example here. Those couple are called, twin prime numbers. 11, 13 are prime numbers and are twin because they are only 2 as a difference. The same for 29 and 31. So, there is a claim, there is an infinity of prime twin numbers. Nobody has proven it and maybe the proof is impossible because it takes too much time to verify the proof. So you see we are really In the second challenge, this infinity of information. Again, we need, we need new mindset, new attitudes, new system to cope with the real change which is now on the planet. So this is for challenge one and two. The big one is challenge three, but that's going to be the next video.