We see here in this particular year,

they were about 28.3 million visitors in total.

And so boredom,

we see a total of overnight stays by foreign visitors from the four continents.

Not surprisingly, most visitors came from Europe.

So, it's in Europe and

fewer people came from other continents where you effectively have to fly.

We see that about 17 million overnight stays were in hotels and

a bit more than 11 million were in these other domiciles.

Now I think you'll agree with me, this table is a mess.

We see these long numbers.

We have numbers between 50,000 and 28 million.

It's difficult to solve, look and understand this.

So this table of raw data, of counts,

we typically like to translate into proportions and

then you can also use them as probabilities using,

once again, concept number two, empirical probabilities.

Here in the bottom right-hand corner, this green shade, there's a reservoir.

100%.

How do I get this data?

If you look at the accompanying Excel spreadsheet,

you will see you just divide every number by the total.

28.3 million or the total divided by itself gives me this 1.000.

We see that 60% of all overnight stays were in hotels, 40% were other.

Those together, 60 plus 40, gives me the one.

At the bottom, we see the percentages for the four continents.

1.2% for Africa, 7 and a half for the Americas, 7.1 for Asia, 84.2 in Europe.

You add those numbers up and guess what?

We are back to 100%.

In the middle, we see now intersection probabilities.

For example, the upper left-hand corner, hotel and Africa 0.10.

So 1% of all overnight stays, whereby visitors from Africa's in hotels and

we have eight of these intersection probabilities.

Here now, a little bit of lingo from these probability tables,

the numbers in the margins of the table.

So, it's a very right column in the very bottom row are called marginal

probabilities.

Here for hotel, we would say, P of hotel is 0.6.

At the bottom, the P of Americas, 7.5%.

P of Asia, 7.1%.

So people in probability theory are not very creative or

imaginative, these are indeed the margins of the table and

that's where the name came from, marginal probabilities.

In the interior, in the middle, we have the intersection probabilities.

As I mentioned before, probability or hotel and Africa,

1% probability of other and Europe, 38.1%.

These intersection probabilities in the interior are called joint probabilities,

because we're looking at joint events of hotel and Africa joining and

both happening together.

That's the motivation for the choice of the name.