Hello, everybody. Welcome back. Today we're going to start talking about asymptotic notation. So here we're going to sort of just introduce this whole idea of asymptotic notation and describe some of the advantages of using it. So last time we ran into this really interesting problem that computing runtimes is hard, in that if you really, really want to know how long a particular program will take to run on a particular computer, it's a huge mess. It depends on knowing all kinds of fine details about how the program works. And all kinds of fine details about how the computer works, how fast it is, what kind of system architecture it is. It's a huge mess. And we don't want to go through this huge mess every single time we try to analyze an algorithm. So, we need something that's maybe a little bit less precise but much easier to work with, and we're going to talk about the basic idea behind that. And the basic idea is the following. That, there are lots of factors that have an effect on the final runtime but, most of them will only change the runtimes by a constant. If you're running on a computer that's a hundred times faster, it will take one-one hundreth of the time, a constant multiple. If your system architecture has multiplications that take three times as long as additions, then if your program is heavy on multiplications instead of additions, it might take three times as long, but it's only a factor of three. If your memory hierarchy is arranged in a different way, you might have to do disk lookups instead of RAM lookups. And those will be a lot slower, but only by a constant multiple. So the key idea is if we come up with a measure of runtime complexity that ignores all of these constant multiples, where running in time n and in running in time 100 times n are sort of considered to be the same thing, then we don't have to worry about all of these little, bitty details that affect runtime. Of course there's a problem with this idea, if you look at it sort of by itself, that if you have runtimes of one second or one hour or one year, these only differ by constant multiples. A year is just something like 30 million seconds. And so, if you don't care about factors of 30 million, you can't tell the difference between a runtime of a second and a runtime of a year. How do we get around this problem? Well, there's a sort of weird solution to this. We're not going to actually consider the runtimes of our programs on any particular input. We're going to look at what are known as asymptotic runtimes. These ask, how does the runtime scale with input size? As the input size n gets larger, does the output scale proportional to n, maybe proportional to n squared? Is it exponential in n? All these things are different. And in fact they're sort of so different that as long as n is sufficiently large, the difference between n runtime and n squared runtime is going to be worse than any constant multiple. If you've got a constant multiple of 1000, 1000n might be pretty bad with that big number in front. But, when n becomes big, it's still better than n squared. And so, by sort of only caring about what happens in this sort of long scale behavior, we will be able to do this without seeing these constants, without having to care about these details. And in fact, this sort of asymptotic, large scale behavior is actually what you care about a lot of the time, because you really want to know: what happens when I run my program on very large inputs? And these different sorts of scalings do make a very large difference on that. So suppose that we have an algorithm whose runtime is roughly proportional to n and we want it to run it on a machine that runs at about a gigahertz. How large an input can we handle such that we'll finish the computation in a second? Well if it runs at about size n, you can handle about a billion sized inputs, before it takes more than a second. If instead of n, it's n log n it's a little bit slower, you can only handle inputs the size about 30 million. If it runs like n squared, it's a lot worse. You can only handle inputs of size about 30,000 before it starts taking more than a second. If the inputs are of size 2 to the n, it's incredibly bad, you can only handle inputs of size about 30 in a second. Inputs of size 50 already take two weeks, inputs of size 100 you'll never ever finish. And so the difference between n and n squared and 2 to the n is actually really, really significant. It's often more significant than these factors of 5 or 100 that you're seeing from other things. Now just to give you another feel of sort of how these sort of different types of runtimes behave, let's look at some sort of common times that you might see. There's log n, which is much smaller than root n, which is much smaller than n, which is much smaller than n log n, which is much smaller than n squared, which is much smaller than 2 to the n. So, if we graph all of these, you can see that these graphs sort of separate out from each other. If you just look at them at small inputs, it's maybe a little bit hard to tell which ones are bigger, there's a bit of jostling around between each other. But if we extend the graph outwards a bit, it becomes much more clear. 2 to the n starts after about 4 really taking off. Really just 2 to the n just shoots up thereafter and becomes 20 or 30, it just leaves everyone else in the dust. N squared keeps up a pretty sizable advantage though against everyone else. N log n and n also are pretty well separated from the others. In this graph, root n and log n seem to be roughly equal to each other, but if you kept extending, if you let n get larger and larger, they'd very quickly differentiate themselves. Square root of 1 million is about 1,000. Log of 1 million is about 20. And so really as you keep going out, very quickly the further out you go the further separated these things become from each other, and that's really the key idea behind sort of asymptotics. We don't care so much about the constants, we care about what happens as your inputs get very large, how do they scale. So that's it for today. Come back next lecture. We'll talk about in sort of detail what this actually means and how to actually get it to work. So until next time.