理想状态下的市场能够达到高效生产：将总剩余(total surplus)最大化。 但是在现实中的市场并非完美。在本课程中，我们将探索一系列市场存在着缺陷的情形并且理解为什么会出现这些缺陷；同时，我们会了解一些改进措施，比如反托拉斯(antitrust)政策以及其他一些政府的干预措施。 我们会选取日常中的例子——从我们每天购买和享用的货物和服务开始。我们也会在每周的练习里把理论运用到时下大事和政策研讨中。 所有的这些都会使你成为一个可以理解、分析和评价市场结果的，有学识的，有批判精神的思考者。

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From the course by 宾夕法尼亚大学

微观经济学：当市场“失灵”时

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理想状态下的市场能够达到高效生产：将总剩余(total surplus)最大化。 但是在现实中的市场并非完美。在本课程中，我们将探索一系列市场存在着缺陷的情形并且理解为什么会出现这些缺陷；同时，我们会了解一些改进措施，比如反托拉斯(antitrust)政策以及其他一些政府的干预措施。 我们会选取日常中的例子——从我们每天购买和享用的货物和服务开始。我们也会在每周的练习里把理论运用到时下大事和政策研讨中。 所有的这些都会使你成为一个可以理解、分析和评价市场结果的，有学识的，有批判精神的思考者。

From the lesson

Monopoly

A monopoly is a case where there is only one firm in the market. We will define and model this case and explain why market power is good for the firm, bad for consumers. We will also show that society as a whole suffers from the lack of competition.

- Rebecca SteinSenior Lecturer

Economics

[MUSIC]

I'd like to go through this relationship between marginal revenue and

price one more time.

And this time I'll use calculus, for

those of you who are comfortable thinking using calculus.

So, let's remind ourselves what revenue is.

Revenue is price times quantity.

I have the equation of price here.

So price times quantity, in this case,

is equal to (150-Q)Q, or 150Q-Q squared.

So what is marginal revenue?

Marginal revenue is the extra revenue of selling the extra unit.

In other words, it's the derivative of revenue with respect to quantity.

And if I take the derivative of this equation, I get 150-2Q.

In other words, what I get is an equation that start off at the same intersect,

but has twice the slope.

So again, we get the marginal revenue is less than the price.

Now, let's go ahead and use what we've just learned.

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