会计信息是一个组织的命脉，因为它促进、影响着那些达成组织目标的运营性和战略性决定。会计以3种角色来帮助组织进行决策：衡量、控制、沟通。\n\n这门课将介绍会计是如何帮助经理人制定、实施、并优化组织战略。特别的，你将会学习非财务和财务信息是如何被创建和处理，如何影响经理人进行战略决策及衡量战略是否成功。这门课还将介绍会计是 to be continued..

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From the course by 伊利诺伊大学香槟分校

会计之商业决策：战略评估与控制

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会计信息是一个组织的命脉，因为它促进、影响着那些达成组织目标的运营性和战略性决定。会计以3种角色来帮助组织进行决策：衡量、控制、沟通。\n\n这门课将介绍会计是如何帮助经理人制定、实施、并优化组织战略。特别的，你将会学习非财务和财务信息是如何被创建和处理，如何影响经理人进行战略决策及衡量战略是否成功。这门课还将介绍会计是 to be continued..

From the lesson

Module 1: Managing Capacity

In this module, you will explore different measures of an organization's capacity and understand their implications for many different decisions, including product pricing.

- Gary Hecht, Ph.D.Associate Professor of Accountancy

Department of Accountancy, College of Business

Now let's turn to a second GnG landscape example and

we'll change up the product a little bit, and talk about watering cans.

GnG produces two types of watering cans.

Both products are manufactured using the same capacity.

And we, of course, have per unit financial information for both the Deluxe and

the Ultimate versions of our watering cans.

The selling price is 15 and 35, respectively.

Direct materials are 2 and 8.

Direct labor of 2 and 5 and variable overhead 4 and 10.

And just like before, the labor wages that we pay are at a rate of $10 per hour,

regardless of which product the employees are working on.

Now the question would be, which is GnG's most profitable product?

And we would rely,

again, on our contribution margin per unit number to make that determination.

The contribution margin that we earn for each Deluxe watering can is 7 and

it's 12 for the Ultimate.

So the Ultimate product is our most profitable product given that we have

no internal constraints and, or demand is our most constrained resource.

Now, suppose that labor is our most constrained resource.

Now, which is GnG's most profitable product?

Well, again, we need to convert our contribution margin measure into something

more useful for this scenario.

The contribution margin on a per-unit basis for

Deluxe is $7, while it's $12 for Ultimate.

The question would be how much is our contribution per our unit of

scares resource or in this case, labor?

So, what we need is hours per unit that's available to us.

We were not given the number of hours per unit directly, but

we do know that employees are paid $10 per hour and we know how much direct

labor resources are required for each unit of each type of a watering can.

In a case of the Deluxe product,

we have $2 worth of direct labor for each unit that we produce.

That's two-tenths of the hourly wage that we pay.

So, it must be that we use two-tenths of an hour for

each unit of the Deluxe watering can.

If we were to divide the contribution margin that we earn per unit

by the hours per unit that we require to create a Deluxe watering can,

we would have a contribution per hour of $35.

Put another way, because it only takes us two-tenths of an hour to produce

a Deluxe watering can, in one hour we could produce five watering cans.

For each of those five Deluxe watering cans, we would get $7 and

that is $35 for that hour.

A similar approach can be used for the Ultimate watering can.

For that, the direct labor that we spend per unit is $5.

That sounds like half an hour worth of labor wages.

So, it must take us a half an hour to complete one Ultimate watering can.

The $12 that we earn per unit in terms of contribution margin divided by

the hours per unit that are required to create one Ultimate watering can is $24.

Again, put another way, if it takes us a half an hour to create one watering can,

we could probably do two in an hour.

That's 2 units worth of contribution margin that we get in that hour or

12 times the 2 equal to the $24 that is displayed there.

So looking at our products, if labor is our most constrained resource,

we would find that the Deluxe watering can yields a higher contribution per

labor hour relative to the Ultimate watering can and that we would deem as our

most profitable product given that labor is our most constrained resource.

Now, let's suppose the following that demand is not constrained.

There are 5,000 labor hours available and there are 6,000 machine hours available.

The Deluxe watering can requires one machine hour and

the Ultimate watering can requires two machine hours.

Basically, this scenario introduces multiple potential constraints.

We have constraints on labor hours and machine hours.

Demand, as noted is not constraint.

So in a sense,

in this problem, we're not told which is our most constrained resource.

We need to be able to identify that and then rely on a measure that focuses on

that most constrained resource to identify our most profitable product, and

choose the course of action that is best for our organization.

But in this situation, we're not told that, we have to figure that out.

Now looking at the provided information, it looks like on the surface that

we have fewer labor hours than we do machine hours, 5,000 versus 6,000.

And like I said on the surface, it looks like the labor hours are the more

constrained resource, but this is not valid.

Because it's not about the total number of hours of different types

that are available, it's what we do with those hours.

So given the information, we have to identify which is our most

constrained resource and it takes some analysis to do that.

So to determine which resources most constrained,

let's focus on labor for a second.

We were told that the Deluxe watering can, we can do five units in an hours time.

We'll use two-tenths of an hour per unit.

So in one hour, we can create five Deluxe watering cans.

If we were to take all of our available labor time, all 5,000 hours and

use it just to produce Deluxe watering cans, we would produce for

each of those hours, 5 deluxe cans and that would yield 25,000 units in total.

For the Ultimate version, we can create two units per hour.

If we were to take all 5,000 hours of our labor time and use it completely for

Ultimate watering can production, we could produce 10,000 Ultimate watering cans.

So in a sense, what I'm suggesting here is that if we were to use all of our

labor resources, we could produced either 25,000 Deluxe watering cans or

10,000 Ultimate watering cans.

Now of course, we could produced some of both, but

these are the most that we could produced with our labor resources of each type.

Let's compare that to how many units that we can produced of each type

using the machine time?

We were told that the deluxe product requires one hour for each unit.

So, we can create one unit per hour.

If we were to use all of our machine time,

that is all 6,000 hours and create only deluxe watering cans,

we could produce 6,000 deluxe watering cans with all of that machine time.

On the Ultimate side, we require 0.5 units per hour.

That's because we had two hours per unit.

If we were to use all 6,000 hours to create Ultimate watering cans,

we would have 6,000 hours x 0 .5 per hour or 3,000 Ultimate watering cans.

So as you can see, when we used up all of our labor, we can produced more of Deluxe

and Ultimate watering cans than before we were to used up our machine time.

So from this example,

we can identify machine time as our most constrained resource.

Put another way, we run out of machine time before we run out of labor time.

So now knowing that machine time is our most constrained resource,

we can return to our financial information to calculate which of the two products is

our most profitable product.

Provided information in terms of the contribution margin is the same,

as it was before.

$7 for the Deluxe and $12 for the Ultimate.

The machine hours per unit required for Deluxe and Ultimate are one hour and

two hours, respectively.

And so the $7 of contribution margin per unit divided by the machine hours required

for each Deluxe watering can is $7 of contribution margin per machine hour.

Because it requires two machine hours per unit for the Ultimate watering can,

we earn $6.00 in contribution margin per machine hour allocated towards

ultimate production.

And so from this, we learned that the Deluxe product when machine

time is aren't the most limited resource is the more profitable product.

So from this,

we learn that given that machine time is our most constrained resource,

the Deluxe version of the watering can is our most profitable product.

Now, let's have a checkpoint just to make sure that we're all on the same page.

So, let's close up this example with a few additional thoughts.

First of all, in the real world,

the scenario can often be more complex than we have in our examples, but

the basic principles that we have identified are the same.

Using measures in the intermediate and short-term to maximize the profitability

and productivity of the capacity that we have.

We have obviously identified more of a financial perspective.

And oftentimes, we have suggested that one product is our more preferred product.

Now obviously, there are other considerations such as strategy.

Perhaps we don't want to be a single product firm and

allocate all of our resources towards one type of clay pot or

one type of watering can and it may actually be more profitable to be able to

offer more than one type of product, because our consumers bundle them.

Those factors we have ignored for right now, we've assumed them away.

But essentially, those strategic consideration are always there.

And of course, in the long-term,

our list of feasible options is broader than what we focused on.

We can perhaps always invest in different types or broader capacities.

We've ignored those options for now, because of the difference in time horizon.

Again, our focus is on maximizing the capacity that we have and

dealing with the constraints in an intermediate and short-term fashion.

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